Special characters

I prefer to use HTML coding to get special characters, such as accents on letters, by using certain codes on the citation page. The following table lists some of the special characters that can be made with HTML and/or (La)TeX.

There are characters needed in some languages, such as Polish or Yoguslavian, that cannot be generated with standard HTML coding, which uses higher ASCII coding (above #126) and the standard Western ISOlatin fonts. These "foreign" characters can show up on a Web page when setting the browser at the correct font coding. But as I wish to keep the page with citations readable at standard font settings, I decided to use TeX to create the characters where possible and use inlined images. Some I encountered and know the (La)TeX coding for are also given below. And the (La)TeX format can also be used for Greek characters and Cyrillic characters.

If using (La)TeX is not possible, then the inlined images must be created in another way.


character description HTML (La)TeX
à small a, grave à \`a
á small a, acute á \'a
â small a, circumflex â \^a
ã small a, tilde ã \~a
ä small a, umlaut ä \"a
å small a, ring å \aa
æ small ae ligature æ \ae
ç small c, cedilla ç \c c
è small e, grave è \`e
é small e, acute é \'e
ê small e, circumflex ê \^e
ë small e, umlaut ë \"e
ì small i, grave ì \`\i
í small i, acute í \'\i
î small i, circumflex î \^\i
ï small i, umlaut ï \"\i
ð small eth (Icelandic) ð  
ñ small n, tilde ñ \~n
ò small o, grave ò \`o
ó small o, acute ó \'o
ô small o, circumflex ô \^o
õ small o, tilde õ \~o
ö small o, umlaut ö \"o
ø small o, slash ø \o
ß small sz ligature ß \ss
ù small u, grave ù \`u
ú small u, acute ú \'u
û small u, circumflex û \^u
ü small u, umlaut ü \"u
ý small y, acute ý \'y
ÿ small y, umlaut ÿ \"y
þ small thorn (Icelandic) þ  
  small oe ligature   \oe
  small v atop a letter, e.g. an 's'
(called há{\v c}ek or "check" mark, or caron)
  \v s
  crossed-out (or: suppressed) Polish 'l'   \l
  macron or "bar" above a letter, e.g. an 'e'   \=e

Capital letters with an accent can be made in HTML by writing the first character behind the ampersand as a capital letter, e.g.  È  leads to È and  Ï  leads to Ï -- note that not all exist as capital.


You can also use (La)TeX format for Greek characters and Cyrillic characters.

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created: 4 November 1998
last modified: 5 October 2002